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Externe Verhandlung

The Contract Dispute Resolution Process: A Comprehensive Guide

Contracts are an essential part of the business world as they set the terms and expectations of a deal. However, despite all efforts to make it clear and comprehensive, disagreements can arise again and again. Contract disputes can be expensive, take time and have a negative impact on business relationships.

This article looks at the importance of effectively resolving contractual disputes, describes the different types of disputes that may arise, and provides tips for resolving them successfully.

What Are Contract Disputes?

A contractual dispute is a legal problem that can arise if the contracting parties understand the terms of the contract differently or if one party fails to fulfill its contractual obligations.

Contractual disputes can arise over various contractual arrangements, ranging from those between organizations, companies and consumers to private individuals. These conflicts can have serious financial and legal consequences, including penalties, damages, and reputation damage. In order to avoid or resolve contractual conflicts, the parties must carefully negotiate and draft contracts and, where appropriate, seek legal assistance.

Types of Contract Disputes

  • Breach of contract: Refers to a situation in which a party to the contract does not meet its obligations under the contract. This may be the case if a party does not deliver goods or services as agreed, does not make payment for goods or services, or violates other conditions set forth in the contract. A breach of contract can lead to a contract dispute in which the non-breaching party can seek legal remedies such as compensation, certain benefits or termination of the contract.
  • Misrepresentation: One party makes a false statement about facts or laws in order to persuade the other party to conclude the agreement. Regardless of whether the statement was intentional or not, it must be essential to the contract and must have influenced the other party's decision to conclude the contract. These types of disputes may result in legal remedies such as contract termination or compensation and make the misrepresenting party liable for fraud or other legal consequences.
  • Disproportionality: This dispute relates to a circumstance in which a party claims that a contract is indefensible, i.e. the terms of the contract are unilateral and unfair, so that they shake the conscience. In such a case, the party challenging the contract claims that it was forced to sign the contract under pressure or that it was unable to understand the terms of the contract.
  • Mistake or misunderstanding: This is the case when the parties disagree on the meaning of the terms of the contract. This type of dispute usually occurs when the text of the contract is vague or ambiguous. The parties may need to rely on evidence of the party's intent in drafting the contract, industry practice, or other evidence to resolve the dispute.

Steps Before Initiating a Dispute Resolution

Any contractual agreement may result in disputes, the settlement of which can be a time-consuming and complicated process. Before embarking on a dispute resolution, a number of steps must be taken to reduce risks and maximize the likelihood of a successful resolution.

1. Review the terms of the contract

Before embarking on a potential dispute resolution, it is important to thoroughly review the terms of the contract. This step requires a full understanding of each party's obligations and arrangements under the contract. Specific provisions that may be relevant to the dispute, such as compensation agreements or dispute resolution procedures, require thorough review. By reviewing the terms of the contract, potential points of contention can be identified and the other party's arguments prepared.

2. Determining the cause of the dispute

Identifying the cause of a contract dispute is critical as it allows the parties to understand the issue and find the optimal solution to resolve it. It also helps to avoid similar disputes in the future by addressing the underlying issue that gave rise to the dispute

3. Gather relevant evidence

A key factor for the effective settlement of contractual disputes is the collection and presentation of relevant evidence. By collecting supporting evidence and other materials, the parties involved can establish the facts of the case and strengthen their legal position in court, if necessary. In addition, presenting evidence during negotiations can enable a more productive and satisfactory solution for all parties involved.

4. Consultation with a lawyer

Before a dispute resolution is initiated, the parties concerned must seek advice from qualified legal counsel. An experienced lawyer can make a thorough analysis of the case, highlight its strengths and weaknesses, and explore the many legal options available to the parties. It can also provide important information on the most effective ways to resolve disputes, whether through negotiation, conciliation or legal proceedings. Working closely with legal counsel allows parties to go through the complex dispute resolution process with confidence, knowing that they have the support and experience they need to reach a good decision.

The Methods of Dispute Resolution

1. Negotiation

Negotiation is often the starting point for resolving a contract dispute. It is a process in which both sides meet for talks and strive to reach an agreement that is satisfactory for all parties involved. As it is less formal, less time-consuming and less costly than litigation, negotiation is generally preferred over other methods of dispute resolution.

Benefits of a Negotiation

  • Cost-effective: It is generally cheaper than arbitration or court proceedings because there are no court or arbitration fees and there are often no lawyers involved.
  • Time saving: It's faster because no court proceedings are required.
  • Maintains control: The parties have control over the outcome of the dispute as they make the decision themselves rather than relying on a judge or referee.
  • Maintaining relationships: It can often promote a positive relationship between the parties by allowing them to work together towards a mutually beneficial agreement.
  • Flexible: It is adaptable and can be tailored to the parties' needs, including time, place, and format.

Strategies for a successful negotiation

  • Preparation: This includes understanding the problems, interests, and the legal and factual background of the dispute.
  • Communication: Active listening and clear communication help parties understand each other's point of view and avoid misunderstandings.
  • Focus on interests: Understand each party's underlying needs and concerns to find a mutually beneficial solution.
  • Perseverance: It is crucial to remain resolute and continue to work towards a solution, even though progress is slow.

2. Mediation

Mediation is a form of alternative dispute resolution in which a neutral third party, a so-called mediator, helps the parties to the dispute find a mutually acceptable solution. This method is often used in contract disputes as it is cost-effective and efficient and makes formal court proceedings unnecessary.

Understanding the role of the mediator

A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates communication and helps the parties find a mutually acceptable solution based on their interests and concerns. The mediator cannot impose a solution or make decisions for the parties.

The most important duties of a mediator include:

  • Creating a safe and respectful environment for communication between parties
  • Encouraging parties to actively listen to one another and to consider each other's point of view
  • Helping parties identify their respective interests and concerns
  • Facilitating the exchange of information between parties
  • Accompanying the parties on their way to a mutually acceptable solution
  • Ensuring that the parties understand the terms of an agreement reached
  • Maintaining confidentiality throughout the mediation process

Advantages and disadvantages of mediation


  • Cost-effective: It is generally less expensive than arbitration or court proceedings.
  • Efficient: It can often be completed more quickly than a court case.
  • Check: The parties have more control over the outcome of the dispute as they are responsible for reaching an agreement.
  • Confidentiality: It is a private procedure in which the details of the dispute are not published.


  • Not legally binding: In contrast to conciliation, the outcome of mediation is not legally binding.
  • Imbalance of forces: In some cases, one party has more power or resources than the other, which can make it difficult to reach a fair agreement.
  • No guarantee of success: It does not always lead to a solution and the parties may have to use other forms of dispute resolution.

3. Arbitration

Arbitration is a method of resolving disputes in which the parties to a contractual dispute agree to submit their case to a neutral third party, an arbitrator. The conciliator listens to both sides, examines the evidence and then makes a final, binding decision, the so-called arbitral award.

The conciliation process

The process usually comprises the following steps:

  • Arbitration Agreement: The parties agree to submit their dispute to arbitration, either through a clause in their contract or by a separate agreement.
  • Selection of referee: The parties can select an arbitrator together, or each party selects its referee, who then selects a third referee to chair the panel.
  • Preliminary hearing: The arbitrator shall establish rules and procedures, including the timetable for the presentation of evidence and arguments.
  • Evidence and arguments: The parties provide evidence and arguments to the conciliator; the conciliator may ask questions and request additional evidence.
  • Arbitration award: The arbitrator issues a written decision, the so-called arbitral award, which is binding on the parties and enforceable in court.

4. Litigation

In connection with contractual disputes, litigation is the formal legal process for resolving a dispute through court proceedings. If a party believes that another party has broken a contract, they can file a lawsuit in court to seek compensation or performance of the contract.

The court procedure in case of contract disputes

The following is a general overview of court proceedings in the event of contract disputes:

  • Briefings: The plaintiff files a statement of claim setting out his claims against the defendant, who must respond with an answer, which may include counterclaims.
  • Disclosure: The parties exchange information about the case as part of a process known as discovery. This may include requests for documents, written questions and hearings (oral testimony under oath).
  • Application process: Any party may file motions to question the court on a specific issue, such as the admissibility of evidence or the dismissal of certain claims.
  • Parley: When the case is heard in court, the parties present evidence and arguments to a judge or jury that makes a final decision on the case.
  • Vocation: If a party is dissatisfied with the outcome of the proceedings, it can appeal the decision to a higher court.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Litigation

As a method of resolving contractual disputes, court proceedings have several advantages and disadvantages:


  • Formal legal process: It provides a structured and formal legal process for resolving disputes with clear rules and procedures that are enforced by the court.
  • The powers of the court: Because a lawsuit is a legal process, the court has the power to compel the parties to comply with its orders, including paying compensation or fulfilling contractual obligations.
  • Potentially high compensation: If the plaintiff succeeds in proving his case, he can be awarded a large amount of compensation, which can mean a significant financial advantage.
  • Setting precedents: It can create precedents that can set trends for future cases and clarify legal issues.


  • Time-consuming: It can be a lengthy process involving several phases of disclosure, motions and hearings, and a potential process.
  • High costs: It can be expensive as there are legal and court fees and expenses for disclosure and litigation.
  • Lack of control: The parties may have only limited influence on the outcome of the proceedings, as it is ultimately decided by a judge or jury.
  • Public character: Court proceedings are public, which may result in the parties and their company being subject to public scrutiny and potentially damaging their reputation.

Differences Between Arbitration and Litigation

Key differences between arbitration and court proceedings include:

  • Choice of decision maker: In a lawsuit, the decision maker is a judge or a jury, while in arbitration, a neutral third party acts as arbitrator.
  • Control over the process: In a lawsuit, the court controls the process, while in arbitration, the parties have control over the process, including the selection of arbitrators and the rules.
  • Time and costs: Arbitration is faster and cheaper than court proceedings because there are fewer proceedings and faster scheduling.
  • Appeal rights: The arbitral tribunal's decision is final and binding and can only be appealed to a limited extent, while in the event of a dispute, the parties have the option to appeal to a higher court.

How to Choose the Right Dispute Resolution Method

1. Factors to consider when choosing a method

When choosing a procedure to resolve a contract dispute, there are several important factors to consider

  • Expenses: This is a key factor when choosing a dispute resolution method, as it affects the financial resources of the parties involved.
  • Time: Longer dispute resolution proceedings may result in higher costs and major interruptions for the parties involved. It's important to weigh the potential time spent on each method against the potential pros and cons.
  • Confidentiality: It is important to choose a method that ensures confidentiality if the parties want to keep the dispute out of the public eye.
  • Flexibility: Different disputes require different ways of settlement. Some require a more structured and formal process, while others require a more flexible and creative approach.
  • Enforceability: If the chosen method does not include a clear enforcement process, compliance with the conditions may be difficult, leading to additional disputes and costs.

2. The role of the dispute resolution clause in a contract

When drawing up a contract, a dispute resolution clause specifies the chosen method for resolving future disputes. The wording of this clause must be carefully considered as it may have an impact on the outcome of disputes. When drafting this clause, factors to consider include:

  • Selection of the appropriate method based on the nature of the contract and the potential disputes that may arise.
  • Defining the jurisdiction and venue for any dispute resolution proceedings.
  • Establishing procedural rules and guidelines for dispute resolution proceedings.

3. Adapting the dispute resolution procedure to the respective dispute

The parties should tailor the dispute resolution method chosen to the specific circumstances of their dispute. This should take into account the specific needs and objectives of each party, the complexity of the dispute, the number of parties involved and all other relevant factors. By tailoring the process to each dispute, the parties can increase the chances of a satisfactory resolution and avoid unnecessary delays and costs.

Tips for successful dispute resolution

1. Maintain open communication

Actively listening to the opposing party can help identify the underlying difficulties and make it easier to discover common ground. It's important to communicate effectively and not make assumptions or jump to conclusions. To avoid potential disputes, you should resolve any misunderstandings or disagreements as soon as possible.

2. Be prepared and organized

It is necessary to collect all necessary information, documents and evidence to support your claim. When you know your rights, obligations, and legal options, you can make informed decisions and negotiate effectively. It is also important to document all communications and correspondence relating to the matter.

3. Keep an eye on the goal

During an argument, it is important to keep an overview and not lose sight of the goal. It is crucial to focus on the desired outcome and to seek an amicable solution. Concentrating can require adaptability and ingenuity, but it's important to keep the end goal in mind. It's important not to get emotional, defensive, or personal during the process, as this can hinder progress and make the situation worse.

4. Be prepared to compromise

It is not always possible to find a solution that satisfies everyone involved, and therefore a certain amount of negotiation is often necessary. It is critical to identify areas where you agree and disagree and explore ways to find a compromise. Even though both sides may have to make concessions, this is the key to a mutually acceptable agreement.

5. Bring in a neutral third party

In certain situations, disputes may be too complicated or emotionally charged to resolve alone. In such cases, it may be beneficial to involve a neutral third party, such as a conciliator or mediator. A third party that is not involved in the dispute can promote discussion, provide an impartial view, and help the parties find a mutually acceptable solution. It is crucial to choose a neutral third party with the necessary skills and knowledge of the sector in question.


In summary, contract disputes are a necessary part of business life and must be resolved successfully in order to maintain a positive work environment and save money on legal costs. It is critical to pursue a proactive strategy that highlights open communication, compromise, and negotiation as priorities for successfully resolving contractual disputes.

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